The course by professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Gary Gensler.

This course is for students wishing to explore blockchain technology’s potential use—by entrepreneurs and incumbents—to change the world of money and finance.

The course begins with a review of Bitcoin and an understanding of the commercial, technical, and public policy fundamentals of blockchain technology, distributed ledgers, and smart contracts. The class then continues on to current and potential blockchain applications in the financial sector.

Session 1: Introduction
Session 2: Money, Ledgers, and Bitcoin
Session 3: Blockchain Basics & Cryptography
Session 4: Blockchain Basics and Consensus
Session 5: Blockchain Basics and Transactions, UTXO, and Script Code
Session 6: Smart Contracts and DApps
Session 7: Technical Challenges
Session 8: Public Policy
Session 9: Permissioned Systems
Session 10: Financial System Challenges and Opportunities
Session 11: Blockchain Economics
Session 12: Assessing Use Cases
Session 13: Payments, Part 1
Session 14: Payments, Part 2
Session 15: Central Banks & Commercial Banking, Part 1
Session 16: Central Banks & Commercial Banking, Part 2
Session 17: Secondary Markets and Crypto-Exchanges
Session 19: Primary Markets, ICOs, & Venture Capital, Part 1
Session 20: Primary Markets, ICOs, & Venture Capital, Part 2
Session 21: Post Trade Clearing, Settlement, & Processing
Session 22: Trade Finance & Supply Chain
Session 23: Digital ID
Session 24: Conclusion

Blockchain technology and cryptocurrency have gained significant attention in recent years. This article aims to provide beginners with a basic understanding of these concepts and their implications. We will explore the fundamentals of blockchain, the role of cryptocurrency, and their potential impact on various industries.

What is Blockchain?

Blockchain is a decentralized and immutable digital ledger that records transactions across multiple computers. It operates on a peer-to-peer network, eliminating the need for intermediaries like banks. Each transaction is stored in a "block" that is linked to previous blocks, forming a chain. This technology offers transparency, security, and tamper resistance.

Understanding Cryptocurrency

Cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual form of currency that utilizes cryptography for security. Bitcoin, created by an anonymous person or group named Satoshi Nakamoto, was the first cryptocurrency. It introduced the concept of decentralized digital money, independent of any central authority. Other cryptocurrencies like Ethereum, Ripple, and Litecoin have since emerged.

How Does Blockchain Power Cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrencies rely on blockchain technology to function. When someone initiates a cryptocurrency transaction, it is verified by network participants called miners. Miners solve complex mathematical problems to validate and add the transaction to a block. Once added, the transaction becomes a permanent part of the blockchain. This process ensures the integrity and security of cryptocurrency transactions.

Potential Applications of Blockchain and Cryptocurrency

Finance and Banking: Blockchain can streamline financial processes, such as cross-border payments, reducing costs and increasing efficiency. Cryptocurrencies can provide financial access to the unbanked and facilitate faster, low-cost transactions.

Supply Chain Management: Blockchain enables transparent and traceable supply chains, enhancing product authenticity and reducing fraud.

Healthcare: Blockchain can improve patient data management, secure medical records, and enhance interoperability among healthcare providers.

Voting Systems: Blockchain-based voting systems offer transparency, immutability, and resistance to tampering, potentially increasing trust in electoral processes.

Smart Contracts: Blockchain supports self-executing contracts, eliminating the need for intermediaries and automating agreement enforcement.

Benefits and Challenges

Benefits: Blockchain offers increased transparency, security, and efficiency. It reduces reliance on intermediaries, lowers costs, and provides trust in peer-to-peer transactions.

Challenges: Scalability, regulatory concerns, energy consumption, and the risk of fraudulent activities are challenges that need to be addressed for broader adoption of blockchain and cryptocurrencies.


Blockchain and cryptocurrency are disruptive technologies with the potential to revolutionize various industries. Understanding their basic concepts and potential applications is crucial in navigating the evolving digital landscape. While there are benefits and challenges, continuous innovation and collaboration will shape the future of blockchain and cryptocurrency.

All lectures can be found here:

Lectures notes:

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